Climate change is an urgent global challenge. Scientific evidence suggests that man-made greenhouse
gas emissions have already contributed to 1 degree Celsius (°C) of global warming above
pre-industrial levels over the past 150 years. Global warming is likely to reach 1.5°C above
pre-industrial levels between 2030 and 2052 if it continues to increase at the current rate. The
Paris Agreement and Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) #13 (Climate Action) recognize the importance
of collective mitigation and adaptation actions by developed and developing countries in tackling
climate change at various levels.
Since the Paris Agreement came into effect in 2016, Parties to the Agreement have submitted
nationally determined contributions (NDCs), setting out their climate mitigation and adaptation
ambitions, and have made progress in developing climate policies. The challenge now is to translate
these ambitions into actions and raise the ambition of NDCs on a five-year cyclical basis starting
from 2020. Importantly, without ratcheting up NDC ambitions, current NDCs will not collectively
achieve the Agreement's aim to keep the average global temperature rise to below 2°C above
pre-industrial levels, let alone its aspirational target of limiting this rise to 1.5°C.
Indeed, Parties are challenged by their unique socioeconomic and environmental contexts, which
necessitate different climate mitigation and adaptation approaches. It is important to acknowledge
equity and common but differentiated responsibility as the key drivers of global climate change
action. It is also important to recognize the spillover and negative impacts of response measures to
climate change on developing countries. These countries – especially those vulnerable to climate
change – shall focus on adaptation as a priority and enhance their resilience to climate change
impacts. They will also contribute to climate change mitigation if adequate finance, technology and
capacity building are provided.
The concept of a circular carbon economy has emerged in the climate policy debate as a way to
balance economic development and environmental sustainability. T20 Saudi Arabia presents an
opportunity to communicate pressing global issues to the G20. The work of this task force will
therefore contribute toward speeding up nations' climate actions while ensuring environmental
protection and economic growth.